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Baldwin, Olive and Thelma Wilson. “Cross, Letitia(bap. 1682?, d. 1737).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Jan. 2008. 22 Nov. 2011 <>.

Conway, Alison Margaret. The Protestant Whore: Courtesan Narrative and Religious Controversy in England, 1680-1750. Toronto: University of Toronto, 2010. Print.

Cuder-Domínguez, Pilar. Stuart Women Playwrights, 1613-1713. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate Pub., 2011. Print.

Davenport Adams, William. A Dictionary of the Drama: a Guide to the Plays, Play-wrights, Players, and Playhouses of the United Kingdom and America, from the Earliest times to the Present. Vol. 1. Philidelphia: Chatto & Windus, 1904. Google Books.

Hager, Alan, and John Huntington. Encyclopedia of British Writers, 16th to 18th Centuries. New York: Facts On File, 2005. Print.

Highfill, Philip H., Kalman A. Burnim, and Edward A. Langhans. A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Volume 15, Tibbett to M. West: Actresses, Musicians, Dancers, Managers, and Other Stage Personnel in London, 1660-1800. Vol. 15. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1973. Print.

Kelley, Anne. “Pix , Mary (c.1666–1709).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. May 2009. 17 Nov. 2011 <>.

Kelley, Anne. “Trotter , Catharine (1674?–1749).”Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Oct. 2008. 17 Nov. 2011 <>.

Lee, Anthony W. Mentoring in Eighteenth-century British Literature and Culture. Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2010. Print.

Marsden, Jean I. Fatal Desire. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2006. Print.

Rogers, Katharine M. “Susanna Centlivre.” The Meridian Anthology of Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Plays by Women.  Ed. Katharine M. Rogers. New York, New York: Penguin Books USA, 1994. 131-184. Print.

Rubik, Margarete. Early Women Dramatists 1550-1800. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998. Print.

Schneider, Ben Ross. Index to the London Stage, 1660-1800. Southern Illinois UP, 1979. Print.

Schneider, Ben Ross. The London Stage, 1660-1800; a Calendar of Plays, Entertainments & Afterpieces, Together with Casts, Box-receipts and Contemporary Comment. Vol. 1. Southern Illinois UP, 1965. Print.

Todd, Janet M. "In Her Lifetime." The Critical Fortunes of Aphra Behn. Columbia: Camden House, 1998. 3-17. Print.

Williams, Jane. The Literary Women of England: Including a Biographical Epitome of All the Most Eminent to the Year 1700; And the Sketches of the Poetesses to the Year 1850 with Extracts from Their Works, and Critical Remarks. London: Saunders, Otley, and Co., 1861. eBook. <>



Ariadne. She Ventures, And He Wins. 1696. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. Print.

Behn, Aphra. The Rover. 1677. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.

Behn, Aphra. Feign'd Curtizans. 1679. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.

Manley , Mary De la Rivière. The Royal Mischief, A Tragedy as it is Acted by His Majesties Servants. London: R. Bentley, F. Saunders, and J. Knapton, 1696. Print.

Pix, Mary. Ibrahim, the Thirteenth Emperour of the Turks: A Tragedy as It Is Acted by His Majesties Servants. London: John Harding, at the Bible and Anchor in Newport-Street, and Richard Wilkin, at the King's-Head in St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1696. Print.

W.M. The Female Wits Or, The Triumvirate of Poets at Rehearsal. A Comedy. As It Was Acted Several Days Successively with Great Applause at the Theatre-Royal in Drury-Lane by Her Majesty's Servants. London: William Turner, 1704. Print.

Trotter , Catharine. Agnes de Castro a tragedy, as it is acted at the Theatre Royal by His Majest'ys Servants Written by a Young Lady. London: H. Rhode in Fleetstreet, R. Parker at the Royal-Exchange, S. Briscoe, at the corner of Charles-street, in Russel-street, Covent-Garden, 1696. Print.


Image Credits

Charles, Knight after portrait by Godfrey Kneller. Elizabeth Barry. 1792. Stipple engraving. National Portrait Gallery, London.

Dolle, W. The Stage of Dorset Garden Theatre Set for Elkannah Settle's ''The Empress of Morocco'' 1673. Engraving.

Hogarth, William. The Laughing Audience. 1733. Etching. The Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College.

Pelham, Peter after painting by D. Fermin. Susanna Centlivre. 1720. Engraved Print.

Scharf, George. Sketch of Aphra Behn. 

Smith, John, after Thomas Hill. Mrs Cross. 1700. Mezzotint. National Portrait Gallery, London.

Unknown Artist. Catharine Cockburn (Trotter). Mid 18th Century. Line engraving. Reference Collection, National Portrait Gallery, London.

Unknown Artist. Mary Pix. Purchased, 1967. Oil on canvas. Primary Collection, National Portrait Gallery, London.

Verelst, Simon. Nell Gwyn. 1680. Oil on canvas. Primary Collection, National Portrait Gallery, London.

White, Robert after portrait by John Riley. Aphra Behn. 1716. National Portrait Gallery, London.


Further Reading

Benedict, Barbara M. "Recent Studies in the Restoration and Eighteenth Century." SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 3rd ser. 42.Summer 2002 (2002): 619-64. Print.

Backscheider, Paula R. Spectacular Politics: Theatrical Power and Mass Culture in Early Modern England. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1993. Print.

Bush-Bailey, Gilli. Treading the Bawds Actresses and Playwrights on the Late-Stuart Stage. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2009. Print.

Dawn M. Goode. "Dueling Discourses: The Erotics of Female Friendship in Mary Pix's Queen Catharine." Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture, 1660-1700 32.1 (2008): 37-60. Print.

Gill, Catie. Theatre and Culture in Early Modern England, 1650-1737: from Leviathan to Licensing Act. Burlington, Vt: Ashgate, 2010. Print.

Hume, Robert D. "Theory of Comedy in the Restoration." Modern Philology 70.4 (1973): 302. Print.

Kreis-Schinck, Annette. Women, Writing, and the Theater in the Early Modern Period: the Plays of Aphra Behn and Suzanne Centlivre. Madison [N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2001.Print.

Milling, Jane. "The Female Wits: Women Writers at Work." Theatre and Culture in Early Modern England, 1650-1737 from Leviathan to Licensing Act. Ed. Catie Gill. Farnham (GB): Ashgate, 2010. 119-21. Print.

Pearson, Jacqueline. "Gender And Narrative In The Fiction Of Aphra Behn." The Review of English Studies XLII.165 (1991): 40-56. Print.

Straznicky, Marta. "Restoration Women Playwrights and the Limits of Professionalism."English Literary History 3rd ser. 64.Fall 1997 (1997): 703-26. Print.

Todd, Janet M. The Secret Life of Aphra Behn. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1997. Print.

Wiseman, Susan. Aphra Behn. Plymouth: Northcote House in Association with the British Council, 1996. Print.